Explainer: Carbon seize initiatives tackling local weather change. Local weather Disaster Information
A groundbreaking offshore carbon seize and storage website will likely be launched within the Danish a part of the North Sea on Wednesday.
Carbon dioxide captured in Belgium and transported by ship is to be injected right into a depleted oil subject 200km (120 miles) from the North Coastline as half of what’s known as the Greensand undertaking.
A consortium of firms centered round Germany’s Wintershall Dea and Britain’s INEOS are collectively engaged on Greensand.
Based on Wintershall, the undertaking is the world’s first cross-border offshore CO2 storage with the specific function of mitigating local weather change.
The Worldwide Vitality Company and United Nations local weather scientists say carbon seize and storage (CCS) expertise is an important instrument in assembly local weather targets.
Beneath is a have a look at Greensand and different CCS initiatives underneath approach all through Europe:
Northern Lights, a three way partnership undertaking by Equinor, TotalEnergies and Shell. It plans to start out injecting as much as 1.5 million tonnes each year (mtpa) of CO2 into saline acquifer close to the Troll gasoline subject from the center of 2024. There are plans to extend storage capability to 5-6 mtpa from 2026, pending demand.
Smeaheia, a undertaking by Equinor to develop a storage website within the North Sea with a possible to inject as much as 20 mtpa from 2027/2028. Equinor, which was awarded the exploration license in 2022, mentioned it’s injecting the CO2 captured from its personal hydrogen manufacturing, in addition to some industrial clients in Europe. The corporate goals to make the ultimate funding resolution in 2025.
Luna is a undertaking led by German Wintershall Dea, to retailer as much as 5 mtpa of CO2 at a website some 120km west of Bergen. Wintershall Dea and its Norwegian accomplice Cape Omega have been awarded an exploration license in October. Wintershall Dea has a 60 p.c stake and Norway’s Cape Omega has the remaining 40 p.c within the licence.
Errai is a joint undertaking by Britain’s Neptune Vitality and Norway’s Horisont Energi to develop a storage website within the North Sea with 4-8 mtpa capability and a receiving terminal onshore. Germany’s E.ON plans to hitch the undertaking if Norway approves the appliance for the license to retailer CO2.
Trudvang is a joint undertaking by Sval Energi, Storegga and Neptune Vitality to develop a storage website east of the Sleipner gasoline subject within the North Sea with a capability to inject about 9 mtpa of CO2 from 2029. Sval is the proposed operator of Trudvang with a 40 p.c possession, whereas Storegga and Neptune every have 30 p.c.
Acorn CCS is a undertaking off the coast of Scotland to develop a storage website with an annual capability of 5-10 mtpa of CO2 by 2030. Storegga, Shell and Harbor Vitality every maintain 30 p.c stakes and North Sea Midstream Companions (NSMP) the remaining. 10 p.c within the undertaking.
Viking CCS, led by unbiased oil and gasoline agency Harbor Vitality, goals to retailer as much as 10 mtpa of CO2 by 2030 on the depleted Viking gasoline subject within the southern North Sea. It plans to start out injecting CO2 in 2027, initially at a price of two mtpa of CO2, ramping as much as 10 mtpa by 2030 and 15 mtpa by 2035. RWE, Phillips 66, VPI and West Burton Vitality are storing CO2 emissions on the To put in Viking website.
Northern Endurance, a BP-led partnership, goals to develop infrastructure to move and retailer about 20 mtpa of CO2 underneath the seabed within the southern North Sea from 2030. The undertaking, which additionally consists of Nationwide Grid, Equinor, Shell and TotalEnergies, goals to retailer CO2 emissions captured at at industrial clusters in Teesside and Humberside.
Porthos, a undertaking by the port of Rotterdam, Gasunie and EBN, goals to retailer 2.5 mtpa of CO2 in depleted Dutch gasoline fields within the North Sea. All storage capability has already been contracted by 4 industrial companions: Air Liquide, Air Merchandise, ExxonMobil and Shell. The undertaking deliberate to start out CO2 injections in 2024-2025, however the startup is now delayed till 2026 due to a authorized dispute.
L10, a undertaking led by Neptune Vitality, to retailer 4-5 mtpa of CO2 in depleted gasoline fields within the Dutch North Sea. Different companions within the undertaking are ExxonMobil, Rosewood Exploration and state-owned EBN. The companions plan to submit a storage license utility in March with first CO2 injections seen in 2027-2028, later than beforehand deliberate in 2026.
Greensand is a pilot undertaking led by INEOS Vitality and Wintershall Dea to exhibit that CO2 may be saved underground within the Danish a part of the North Sea. The undertaking goals to inject initially as much as 1.5 mtpa of CO2 from 2025-2026, growing capability to eight mtpa by 2030.
Bifrost, a undertaking led by TotalEnergies, goals to inject as much as 3 mtpa of CO2 into depleted Harald gasoline fields within the Danish North Sea from 2027, and goals to extend capability to greater than 10 mtpa by 2030. The undertaking additionally entails Orsted, which operates offshore pipelines, and the Technical College of Denmark. In February, Denmark awarded TotalEnergies two CO2 storage licenses together with the Harald space.
The Wilhelmshaven CO2 export terminal is a undertaking led by Wintershall Dea to construct a CO2 liquefaction and short-term storage facility at Wilhelmshaven, Germany’s solely deep-water port, after which the CO2 might be shipped or piped to everlasting storage websites underneath the North Sea. It goals to initially deal with about 1 mtpa of CO2 from 2026.
OTHER STORAGE POINTS
The HyNet North West undertaking goals to transform gasoline and gas gasoline from the Stanlow refinery in Cheshire into low-carbon hydrogen, capturing and transferring the CO2 produced in the course of the course of by pipelines to offshore storage in Liverpool Bay. Pre-existing salt caverns in Cheshire can even be used as storage. Operations are anticipated to start out in 2025 and can retailer about 4.5 mtpa of CO2, rising to 10 mtpa by 2030.
ANRAV, a undertaking led by personal Irish vitality firm Petroceltic, will hyperlink CO2 seize amenities at HeidelbergCement’s Devnya Cement plant in northeastern Bulgaria with offshore everlasting storage within the depleted Black Sea gasoline subject of Galata. Anticipated to start out operations in 2028, it should have a capability of 800,000 tonnes of CO2 per 12 months.
PYCASSO is a undertaking capturing carbon from industries within the southwest of France and within the north of Spain and storing it in a depleted gasoline subject in Aquitaine. The undertaking is deliberate to move about 1 mtpa of CO2 by 2030.
The Coda Terminal will likely be a cross-border carbon transport and storage hub in Straumsvík, operated by Icelandic carbon storage agency Carbfix. CO2 captured from industrial corporations will likely be shipped to the terminal to be dissolved in water earlier than being injected into basalt bedrock. The operations, scaled up in steps, are set to succeed in as much as 3 mtpa of CO2 by 2031.
The Silverstone undertaking, coordinated by Carbfix, will deploy commercial-scale CO2 seize, dissolve CO2 in water and inject it into underground basalt rock for mineral storage into the Hellisheidi geothermal energy plant close to Mount Hengill. Silverstone will seize and retailer about 25,000 tonnes of CO2 a 12 months. It’s anticipated to start out within the first quarter of 2025.
The CCS Ravenna Hub, led by vitality firm ENI, is a undertaking to seize CO2 and transport it to offshore depleted gasoline reservoirs off the coast of Ravenna within the Adriatic Sea. The primary section of the undertaking is scheduled in 2023. The complete seize, transport and storage chain will deal with as much as 100,000 mtpa of CO2.
The Cork CCS undertaking goals to retailer carbon captured from Irish industrial amenities in a depleted gasoline subject within the Celtic Sea, doubtlessly reusing an current pipeline for transport. The undertaking is led by utility Ervia.
Slite CCS is a CCS undertaking led by HeidelbergCement and its Swedish subsidiary Cementa, at its Slite cement plant on the Swedish island of Gotland within the Baltic Sea. It goals to seize as much as 1.8 mtpa of CO2, about 3 p.c of the nation’s whole emissions, and retailer these at a number of websites underneath improvement within the North Sea.